Séminaire Donnees et APprentissage Artificiel
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Collaborative activity in learning situations: forms and processes
Intervenant(s) : Michael Baker (CNRS)Diverse research fields are concerned with modelling collaborative activity, from artificial intelligence and evolutionary anthropology, to several branches of psychology, notably organisational psychology, social psychology and educational psychology. Particular visions of cooperation and collaboration have been elaborated in the field of (computer-supported) collaborative learning (e.g. Dillenbourg, Baker, Blaye & O’Malley, 1996), where models of collaboration are required for interpreting experimental results in terms of how the students interacted together, and for design of technologies for collaboration. In this context, a general distinction between cooperation and collaboration (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) is now generally accepted: collaboration involves the mostly synchronous joint attempt to elaborate a shared representation of the problem to be solved, whereas cooperation tends towards less synchronous work, with division of sub-task responsibilities between participants. The main questions raised by this definition are: what is the nature of such “shared representations”, and what are the forms and processes by which they are co-elaborated? This paper deepens and extends these definitions in three main ways. Firstly, a definition of what “shared representation” means is proposed, as mutual acceptance, distinguished from belief (Cohen, 1992). Secondly, forms of cooperative activity are defined in terms of combinations of three gradual dimensions: (a)symmetry of interactive roles, (dis)agreement, and alignment (or coordination) on several levels (problem-solving stage, language, discursive representations). Finally, the discursive operations that constitute collaboration are described, in terms of four broad classes: extensional, cumulative, foundational and reformulative. The set of forms of collaboration associated with the specific case of argumentation dialogue will be described in particular detail, with elements of the model being illustrated with examples taken from several corpora of interactions between students.
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